The Farewell

In Umberto Mastroianni’s The Farewell two highly abstract figures are fused to form a compact mass. The couple consists of segment-like and angular planes, in which intermingled legs, torsos, arms and heads can only be identified at some distance. At the back of the sculpture it becomes obvious that Mastroianni based his composition on a cross with broad bars. At the front, an interplay of diagonal lines dominates, which is further reinforced by the slanting pedestal; consequently the work emanates great dynamism. One of the figures reaches far outside the plinth, as if he or she is being lifted off the ground by the other person during the ardent embrace. This ties in with the original title of Gli Amanti (the lovers), though this is not immediately obvious.
During his long career Umberto Mastroianni – he was the uncle of the actor, Marcello Mastroianni – always started from a natural motif, but with varying results. During the fascist regime in Italy, he produced portraits and busts in Classical style. After the war his work became more experimental and his compositions almost abstract, sometimes as a result of his subject choice. For instance, his sculptural representation of something as immaterial and tenuous as a cloud (made in 1949) still looks highly unusual.

For his human figures of the 1950s, Mastroianni referred back to Cubism and Italian Futurism dating from just before the First World War. That is very much in evidence in The Farewell of 1955. The dynamism of the diagonal lines and the distortions of the subject – as if the embrace is taking place in a protracted moment in which shapes intermingle – are derivatives of Futurism. The larger and smaller holes in the object resulting from untreated imperfections in the casting process, reinforce the idea of fusion, movement and disintegration; of a process in time.

The fact that The Farewell ended up in Rotterdam is primarily due to an omission by the Rotterdam Art Circle. In 1954 this society had organized the Mostra, an exhibition of contemporary Italian sculpture, in the gardens of Museum Boymans. The sculptures on display, including work by Marini and Manzù, had all come from Milan – in those days the centre of Italian sculpture. So Mastroianni, who had always worked in Turin, was not included. He was, however, fairly well known in the Netherlands, especially after he had received an award at the 1954 Venice Biennale and work of his had been exhibited at Sonsbeek 1955. As a result the Rotterdam Art Circle chose to highlight his work in a solo exhibition in March 1957, three years after the Mostra. Accordingly, ten large bronzes by Mastroianni were on show in Rotterdam, including The Lovers. Museum Boymans acquired a small stylized sculpted portrait from the exhibition. Moreover, in consultation with the ‘Stichting Herrijzend Nederland’ (Netherlands Regeneration Foundation) the City Council purchased a second, bigger work: The Lovers. Sybold van Ravesteijn, the architect of Rotterdam’s Central Station, had chosen it. After all, the sculpture was to be a visual accent for the hall of that new building. For that reason it was purchased by the City Council and offered to the Netherlands Railways. When the work was unveiled on 21 May 1957, it had acquired a new title – The Farewell, which was felt to be more fitting for the venue.

In fact, van Ravesteijn had contacted Henry Moore at an earlier stage, for two facade sculptures on either side of the station. For reasons that are not clear, that assignment did not materialize; the relevant sculptures were designed by J.H. Baas, a member of van Ravesteijn’s staff. The choice of Mastroianni’s sculpture in the concourse was more fortunate. The subject of the embracing couple and the dynamic formal syntax are well suited to the bustle of a station concourse. The diagonal lines of the plinth on which the vigorous couple stand further emphasize that dynamism.
Sadly, the interaction between the sculpture and the hurried travellers diminished with the arrival of large yellow ticket-vending machines in the immediate vicinity of The Farewell. They completely overshadowed the bronze. When it became clear that the Central Station was due for a thorough extension and reconstruction, the International Sculpture Collection Committee asked the Dutch Railways if the sculpture might be made available on long-term loan to enhance the sculpture terrace along Westersingel. And, indeed, it can now be seen there, on a slate replica of the original plinth, between the works by Auguste Rodin and Fritz Wotruba.

Jelle Bouwhuis

Oosthoek, J., Italiaanse beelden in Rotterdam, Rotterdam 1996. / Ponente, N., Mastroianni, Rome 1963.

Publicatiedatum: 12/05/2015